My ancestors are “Giduwa”. Oh…I apologize….Cherokee is what you would say. Some of my ancestors, as far as I can trace, are from West Virginia down through Western North Carolina. One thing I really appreciate is the fact that many of the Cherokee People will tell anyone (not “native”) who asks (or doesn’t) that “Cherokee” is a fabricated name; a derivative of a “Creek” word-(now that’s a conundrum-Creek is not a true name either LOL)…whatever…I say “A SCREWING UP OF A NAME OF A PEOPLE / A NATION ON PURPOSE TO HIDE THE TRUTH”.
An associate of mine gave me the following article (PLEASE READ SLOWLY AND SEVERAL TIMES):
“TRUTH ABOUT THE CHEROKEES IN NORTH CAROLINA
People of One Fire, A national alliance of Muskogean scholars and their longtime friends, Creek – Seminole – Choctaw – Chickasaw – Alabama – Koasati – Apalachee – Yuchi – Houma – Natchez – Shawnee, PeopleofOneFire@aol.com http://www.peopleofonefire.com
Native American Brain Food No. 34
May 14, 2013
How a state government erased the Creeks, Shawnee, Koasati and Yuchi from history
Early in my career, while serving as the first director of the Downtown Asheville Revitalization Commission, and later, as the first director of the Asheville-Buncombe County Historic Resources Commission I was eyewitness to callous fabrications of history whose impacts affect several Native American tribes and the archaeology profession to this day. Yes, I am proud to know that the beautiful Asheville you see today is the one I designed as a young man, but I also carry the knowledge that some of what students have been taught as the truth since then is unmitigated caca de toro. The disfranchisement of the Chickasaw, Shawnee, Koasati and Yuchi from the NAGPRA process and the diminished funding support for the Creek tribes were a direct result of those events.
This article is part of a 20-part series on the Native American history of the Southern Appalachians in my Native American history column in the Examiner. Many of you have complained about the viral advertising currently cluttering the Examiner, so I am making this particularly one avilable directly.
There is something very unusual about North Carolina’s geography that contemporary historians seem not to appreciate. Native American place names are endemic in the United States. In such states as Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia, Ohio, Georgia, Alabama and Florida there are very few river names that don’t have a Native American origin.
If one looks at a map of North Carolina, a cluster of Native American place names appear on the coast in the vicinity of the Outer Banks and in the extreme western tip of the state, about 300 miles from the state capital at Raleigh. In between is the majority of the state’s land area that is virtually devoid of Native American place names or detailed Native American history.
There is a reason. Much of North Carolina’s landscape was swept of Native settlements before many settlers arrived. During the late 1600s, the northern mountain and Piedmont regions of the state were virtually depopulated by Rickohocken Indian slave raiders from southwestern Virginia. After the Tuscarora War ended in 1715 there were few direct contacts between British settlers and indigenous peoples outside the extreme western mountains.
In 1763 the Yuchi, Shawnee and Creek Indian communities in the state were evicted, while the Cherokees were pushed to North Carolina’s extreme western tip, where Cherokee and Graham Counties are now located. North Carolina had no extended contact period in which the newcomers learned the diverse cultures, languages and histories of the state’s many aboriginal tribes.
As a result, for North Carolinians, the word “Cherokee” has become almost synonymous with “Indian.” Many North Carolina county histories began with the statement, “Once the home of the Cherokee Indians . . . “ – when in fact the Cherokees never lived there. The Cherokee’s villages in North Carolina were concentrated in a narrow band that roughly paralleled the Little Tennessee and Hiwassee Rivers.
For example, official state and local histories of McDowell County, NC say that the county was originally occupied by Cherokee Indians. In the book, The Indian Tribes of North America, highly respected, Smithsonian Institute ethnologist, John W. Swanton, specifically described several large Yuchi Indian towns in present day McDowell County and said that the Yuchi’s occupied the region until white settlers arrived. Between the Yuchi’s and the Cherokee territory of the 1700s, was a broad swath of mountains occupied by Shawnees and Creeks until 1763. Henderson County, NC (south of Asheville) still states in its official history that Creek Indians were its original inhabitants, despite this being a violation of the state’s official policy.
In search of a history
By the late 20th century North Carolina academicians desperately wanted their state to have a Native American history. In 1955, prodigious author, Wilma Dykeman (later Stokely) wrote her first book, The French Broad River. She had grown up in the Beaverdam Community, north of Asheville, and was very familiar with the frontier tales passed down through the generations of mountain families. All assumed that the Cherokees had been the aboriginal inhabitants of the region. In her later years, I befriended Wilma while living in Asheville. She was a frequent customer of our goat cheese creamery!
Dykeman was unable to find any archival proof of a Cherokee presence in the Asheville area. The only recorded Indian village in the Asheville area was a Shawnee village located on the Swannanoa River, where the Biltmore Village shopping district is now situated. The 213 mile length of the French Broad River only contains two Native American place names, both of them Creek Indian in origin. There is the town of Etowah, near Hendersonville, NC and the Swannanoa River (Shawnee River in Muskogee-Creek) near Asheville.
There were NO Native American place names in the mountains north of Asheville and all those due south of Asheville were Creek words. Surprisingly, about 80% of the relatively few Native American place names in all of the North Carolina Mountains are Creek or Maya words that have no meaning in Cherokee, other than being proper nouns. That includes the main river through the Cherokee Reservation, the Oconaluftee. That comes from the Itsate-Creek words Okvne lufte, which mean “Oconee People, cut off.”
Unable to find any historical records about a Cherokee presence in Asheville, Dykeman pulled the names of two Shawnee villages with Creek names that are mentioned in the De Soto Chronicles. The 1725 map of western North Carolina shows them as being on the Little Tennessee River between present day Franklin, NC and Bryson City, NC. In English they were called Conestee and Conasaugua. Their real names were Koneste and Konosawagi. Wilma placed them vaguely on the French Broad River near Asheville.
In the years since then, I have run across numerous books and archaeological reports that quote Wilma Dykeman’s book as an authoritative reference on Native American history in the Appalachians. She was a brilliant woman, but the truth was that her first book was much more of a novel that people realize.
Cherokee History Project
In 1975 a team of historians and anthropologists at the University of North Carolina were given a grant by the state to prove that the Cherokees had been in North Carolina for at least 1000 years. There was to be no mention of the Creeks, Shawnee, Koasati and Yuchi living in North Carolina. That approach may work for government departmental administrators, but to first design a state’s history then instruct researchers to provide proof of it, is not exactly considered scientific methodology.
Explorers Johann Lederer and John Lawson, who explored the Carolina Blue Ridge Mountains in 1669 and 1700 respectively, made no mention of the Cherokees. No European maps show the word Cherokee or Charaqui until 1717. All French maps before that time showed western North Carolina occupied by several branches of the Creek Indians, the Shawnee, the Koasati and the Yuchi. France claimed the region until 1763, hence the name, French Broad River.
By the time I got to Asheville, the Cherokee History Project had been adopted literally as the law by the North Carolina General Assembly. Those of us on the planning staff immediately recognized the stark conflicts between what the professors in Chapel Hill wrote and what was on our colonial era maps and archaeological site files.
After official adoption of the Cherokee History Project in 1976, North Carolina students, including Cherokees and anthropology majors, were taught that the Cherokees had occupied all of the North Carolina Mountains and Upper Piedmont for at least 1000 years in the past, perhaps 10,000 years.
In the four decades since this study, this inaccurate version of history has permeated literature because historians and anthropologists typically cite each other as references rather than going back to primary historical evidence, such as colonial maps. To confront North Carolina scholars with the facts of how their current Native American history came about is to them an act of heresy. It is like telling medieval clergymen that the world is round.
Anthropologists at the University of North Carolina and archaeologist Roy Dickens of Georgia soon labeled the first proto-Cherokees to occupy the North Carolina Mountains, the Conestee Culture. The good professors really should have borrowed someone’s Creek dictionary before making that profound decision. Conestee means “Skunk People” in the Itsate-Creek language. The word has no meaning in Cherokee. It still causes Creek Indians in Georgia to roll in the floor laughing.
One of the more interesting 21st century impacts of the Cherokee History Project is the change in the exhibits and literature at Town Creek Mounds in south-central North Carolina. It is the only Native American village site owned by the state. The heavily fortified village was abandoned around 1400 AD.
For decades, the inhabitants of this Mississippian village were described as Creek Indians, who pushed up the Pee Dee River from South Carolina into Siouan territory. Now the archaeological site is presented as an eastward extension of the “Appalachian Mississippian Culture” even though its architecture, pottery and art are clearly related to proto-Creek provinces to the south. The implication now is that Town Creek was built by the Cherokees. Probably, within a decade that statement will be released to the press as a new discovery.
De Soto slept here
Into this intellectual terra incognito, freshly varnished with bureaucratic authenticity, crept a team of professors from the Universities of North Carolina, Georgia and Tennessee. They were going to find the definitive route for Hernando de Soto’s journey through the Southeast in the early 1540s. One evening in the 1980s the academic group roared into Asheville; spent the night then made a presentation to a breakfast meeting of the Asheville Chamber of Commerce. They described their newly confirmed route of de Soto through Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina and Tennessee. My immediate impression was that these professors didn’t have a clue about the actual topography of the North Carolina Mountains or the time spans of known archaeological sites. They obviously had made their conclusions based on the study of highway maps in academic offices. This was confirmed when some of them came to my office so I could show them our inventory of colonial maps and site files. None were aware that Shawnees, Creeks, Koasati and Yuchi had occupied Western North Carolina in the 1700s.
Later that morning, officials of the Asheville-Buncombe Historic Resources Commission and the Western District Office of the state’s Historic Preservation Office informed the professors that there were no occupied Native American villages in the French Broad Valley during the period that de Soto and Pardo explored the Southeast. Our archaeologists believed that around 1500 the French Broad Valley had become a no-man’s land between two hostile Native American provinces.
The professors ignored the advice and that afternoon announced at a press conference on the grounds of the Biltmore Estate that de Soto had stayed in what is now Asheville on his journey. Dr. Charles Hudson stated that a lump in a pasture on the grounds of the Biltmore Estate was the site of Guaxule, the ancient capital of the Cherokees and that an island in the French Broad River downstream was the site of Chiaha.
Guaxule is the Castilian spelling of the Creek word Wvhvle, which means “southerners.” It was generally applied to the occupants of Florida or the Yucatan Peninsula, and is the source of the name of the Spanish province on the coast of Georgia, Guale. Chiaha was always located on an island in the Little Tennessee River until moving to southwest Georgia in the early 1700s to escape the Cherokees. There are no Cherokee words mentioned in the De Soto Chronicles.
In a matter of days, the Asheville Chamber initiated an ad campaign and new motto, “Asheville, Ancient Heart of the Great Cherokee Nation.” A historical marker was placed on Biltmore Avenue in Downtown Asheville which announced that “de Soto came through here.” To this day, many references, including Wikipedia, state that de Soto passed through Asheville, even though the De Soto Route team later changed their mind.
When finally published, Hudson’s book on de Soto had a different route which did not go through Asheville, but through the northwestern corner of North Carolina. This was done so that a two bit Native American village site in Burke County, NC with a tiny, three feet high mound, could be labeled the great city of Joara visited by Juan Pardo. Absolutely, nothing about the Berry Site in North Carolina matches the Spanish description of Joara. Joara is not mentioned by the de Soto Chronicles anyway. However, that Joara was located in Burke County permeates all references. That is what you will read in Wikipedia.
In 1990 the U. S. Department of the Interior created a map of traditional Native American tribal areas that in the Southeast was heavily influenced by the books by Roy Dickens and members of the De Soto Route Study Group. Because of political influence by North Carolina and the Eastern Band of Cherokee, the presence of Creeks, Shawnee, Koasati, Yuchi and Siouans in North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia and Tennessee were erased from the history books.
The bureaucrats labeled a massive seven state territory as being occupied by the Cherokees in the 1500s. The initial NAGPRA map showed all of Georgia to have been Cherokee at the time of European Contact. The revised map used today shows all of northern Georgia, including Etowah Mounds, to have been always occupied by the Cherokees. The last two tracts in western Georgia ceded by the Creek Nation is the only territory in Georgia that is shown as being traditionally Creek.
Federally recognized Alabama, Koasati, Chickasaw and Shawnee tribes have been completely disfranchised from NAGPRA review of their former town sites in the Southeast. The two federally recognized Creek tribes only have jurisdiction over a small fraction of their original territory. The size of territorial responsibility directly affects grants made by the Department of Interior to support Tribal Historic Preservation Offices. The Muscogee-Creek Nation has undoubtedly been short-changed well over a million dollars since the NAGPRA maps took effect.
In 2003 archaeologists from Appalachian State University excavated the Biltmore Mound site. It wasn’t much . . . an 18 inches high – 50 feet diameter bump. The professor-student team was initially excited about finding architectural proof of the Cherokee’s ancient civilization. What they found instead was that the mound was not even a mound. It was the ruins of a building. The organic residue from the structure was analyzed by equipment that measures the deterioration of Carbon 14 radioisotope absorbed by formerly living matter.
A large round structure had first been built there around 200 AD. Approximately every 50 years until around 450 AD, the structure was rebuilt. A brightly colored clay cap was applied to the remains of the previous structure. After five reconstructions the combined clay caps probably reached the grand height of three feet. Artifacts found in the round structure were typical of those produced in the Middle Woodland Period (0-600 AD.) There was no budget to examine the area around the council house to determine if there was a village.
The “De Soto Slept Here” historical marker was quietly removed from Downtown Asheville. Trying to save what face the city could from the public relations fiasco, a young reporter for the Asheville Citizen-Times announced that the Biltmore Mound was the oldest known Cherokee architecture in the world. An Appalachian graduate student was quoted as saying that their excavations proved that the Cherokees were the Conestee People. It is unlikely that he knew that Conestee means “Skunk People.”
The times are a-changing
Richard Thornton, Editor”
First, I’d like to honor my friends and family who are and were in the services, and others; that being said….
Everyone celebrates “holidays” or “observances” at one point or another, yet we do not always know the history of where these observances came from. Many of us do not question, but follow blindly. But, that is what The Truth Speaker is….a place where those of us who DO question place our thoughts and challenge the reader to do the same: QUESTION AND INVESTIGATE. But, back to my focus here;
I thought since it is Memorial Day and Memorial “Week” for many that this post was relevant and appropriate.
Does anyone know how “Memorial Day” got started?
I did some research, cross-referencing , and came up with this short, but precise and eye-opening information:
After the Civil War, on May 1, 1865, the first widely publicized “celebration” of a Memorial Day-type observance was in Charleston, South Carolina. Union soldier Prisoners of War had been held at the Charleston Race Course, and approximately 260 of those prisoners died there and were quickly buried in unmarked graves. Teachers, missionaries, and Black residents of Charleston organized a May Day ceremony in 1865; the New York Tribune and other national papers covered the story. The “Freedmen” cleaned and landscaped the burial grounds and built an enclosure. They also built an arch and placed the words”Martyrs of the Race Course” on it.
On May 1st, over ten thousand people, mostly Black (Freedmen) gathered to commemorate the ones who crossed over. There were also approximately 3,000 Black school children newly enrolled in Freedmen schools and mutual aid societies. Also present were Union troops, Black ministers, and White northern missionaries, who brought flowers to lay on the burial field. The site is now Hampton Park. This “memorializing” day would later be known in the North as the “First Decoration Day”, which became “Memorial Day”.
David W. Blight, Professor of American History at Yale University and Director of the Gilder-Lehrman Center for the Study of Slavery, Resistance and Abolition described the day:
“This was the first Memorial Day. African Americans invented Memorial Day in Charleston, South Carolina. What you have there is black Americans recently freed from slavery announcing to the world with their flowers, their feet, and their songs what the war had been about. What they basically were creating was the Independence Day of a Second American Revolution.”
So there it is…short…sweet…some more HIDDEN history to enlighten. May you all be blessed and, once again, I honor those fallen and those living who have tried their best to serve in the name of what is supposed to be for “freedom” and “justice”.
(I have my opinion about that too, but I will reserve for a later post.)
INFORMATION RESEARCHED & COMPILED BY SHANAFILA
Dark History of Memphis, Tennessee
Right now in Memphis, Tennessee, a sort of “revolution” is going on. People considered “black” are, and have been part of an “awakening” for a couple of years now; many people have realized that they are this thing called “indigenous”. Like new spring flowers everywhere, classes and lectures have sprung up and courts are consistently filled with individuals and groups standing up and speaking “TRUTH TO POWER”, defending themselves and being witnesses for others pertaining to violations of human and indigenous rights that the courts hardly ever recognize…purposefully.
That being said, Memphis has always had a quiet rumbling going on, with “sleeping giants” in the midst; a 25-foot-tall, 5,000-pound fiberglass reproduction of Ramesses II is a shadow of the truth that hides right below the surface. It is a replica of a limestone original that Memphis was given permission by the Egyptian government to reproduce. The statue was moved from “The Pyramid” where it had been since 1991, then moved to The University of Memphis’ Institute of Egyptian Art & Archaeology. A PYRAMID? In Memphis, TENNESSEE? Yes….another shadow ….a glass building erected near the Mississippi River used as a “toy”; a “cute” representation, first for music concerts, now another business; a smack in the face of all the indigenous people whose ancient ancient ANCIENT ancestors came from “the continent we now know as “Africa” and China hundreds of thousands and thousands of years ago, whose ancestors are now indigenous to North and South America. (Yes yall…China has pyramids!!)
(SEE: THE FIRST AMERICANS WERE AFRICANS by DR. DAVID IMHOTEP.)
We, the INDIGENOUS, have BEEN here in Memphis – we never left!!!!; and we have been persecuted, assaulted, neglected, abused, harassed, kidnapped and murdered throughout history as long as we have been here. Many do not know of the atrocities that occurred in Memphis, at the Mississippi River. The World says, “ELVIS!!!” when Memphis is brought up in conversation…Beale Street – Blues…Music…then a solemn, “Martin Luther King, Jr. was murdered there too, right?” comes in second. This is why this writer has decided to RE-MIND whoever wishes to read the following truth about beloved MEMPHIS, TENNESSEE…..
Indigenous History of Memphis and Tennessee and more…
The earliest name that became the word Tennessee was recorded by Spanish explorer Captain Juan Pardo in 1567 when Pardo and his men passed through an Indian village named “Tanasqui” while traveling from South Carolina. Tanasqui was located at the juncture of the Pigeon and French Broad Rivers near what is now Newport, Tennessee. In the 18th century, British traders encountered a ‘Cherokee’ town called Tanasi in what is now Monroe County, Tennessee. The town was located on a river now called the Little Tennessee River and is on maps, including some from 1725. Areas around and in what is now Memphis were first settled by the Mississippian Culture (Ancient Moundbuilders) who inhabited the modern day Tipton, Lauderdale and Shelby Counties during the time of first encounter with Europeans and at the time of the de Soto Expedition. Tribes historically documented by countless sources as living in the Tennessee and Mississippi areas are the Chikasha (Chickasaw), Chahta (Choctaw), Saktchi Homma (Chakchiuma), Anikituwa (Cherokee), Muscogee (Creek), Yuchi and others. Nine single mound sites and six small villages were located along the levees and bluffs of De Soto County, Mississippi and Shelby County, Tennessee. Some of the mounds still exist. The C.H. Nash Museum in Memphis, formerly known as Chucalissa Indian Village (pronounced “chuck-ah-lizza”, a Choctaw word meaning “abandoned house”) was the home of the Mississippian-period (A.D. 900-1600) ancestors of Choctaw and Chickasaw indigenous peoples, and others. Modern ancestors of these indigenous peoples and others discussed in this initiative herein exist today living in Tennessee and Mississippi as “black”, “negro” or “African-American” people, and others called “Native American”. Also, many counties, cities, rivers, streets, parks, businesses etc. have names and references derived from indigenous language, nations, tribes and individuals.
By the 1680s, French explorers built Fort Prudhomme in the vicinity of the first European settlement that would become Memphis. Fort Assumption was a French fortification constructed in 1739 on the Chickasaw Bluff on the Mississippi River by the French Army. The fort was used as a base against the Chickasaw in the Campaign of 1739. The land of present-day Memphis remained a mostly unorganized territory through most of the 18th century while Tennessee evolved from what would become North and South Carolina. This area became the westernmost point of the newly welcomed Tennessee State of the United States. However, West Tennessee was at that time owned by the Chikasha (Chickasaw) tribe. (Note: One map of Western Tennessee shows it being named CHAKCHIUMA (Saktchi Homma – “red crawfish people”). The area of West Tennessee was forcefully purchased from the Chickasaw Nation by the Federal Government in the 1818 Jackson Purchase. During the enforcement of the Indian Removal Act, which began in 1830, Memphis became a crossing point on the Mississippi River for indigenous peoples expelled from their original lands and removed to “Indian Territory” in Oklahoma and other places during on the “Nunna daul Isunyi” (Cherokee for “Trail where they Cried”) or ‘Trail of Tears’. In Memphis, Lamar Avenue, formerly known as Plank Road, is also known as Highway 78. It was part of the route traveled by the Chickasaw upon their removal on the Trail of Tears, as was Poplar Avenue in Memphis traveled by the “Cherokee” during this time.
During the 19th Century, Memphis became a major slave market. The cotton economy in the South depended on the forced labor of large numbers of slaves. A point not widely known is that most of the slaves in Memphis and Tennessee were not necessarily from the continent known as ‘Africa’; almost all were indigenous to the very land they were kidnapped from and forced to be slaves on.
Check out the movie “12 Years a Slave”; TRUTH SPEAKERS…right?)
During the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries, Indigenous Peoples (“Native Americans”, “American Indians”) were the first to be enslaved in the United States by European colonists; this enslavement became common practice. However, the conditions of their enslavement were many times much worse than those of Africans who came later. The first African slaves were brought here by a wealthy ‘black’ slave ship owner. The owner claimed that most of the slaves were purchased from their tribes and families or came on the trip freely, preferring slavery to starvation, disease, and early deaths if they stayed in Africa. *Less than 20 percent of the ‘blacks’ brought here came from Africa.
Note: During slavery times, some indigenous people were exported to colonies in the North and to the “sugar islands” of the Caribbean and other colonies off-shore.
An estimate by Historian Alan Gallay shows from 1670 to 1715, British slave traders sold somewhere between 24,000 to 51,000 American Indigenous People from what is considered the “South” in the United States. Before the Civil War, approximately one-fourth of the population of Memphis was slaves. Incidentally, a Memphis home located on the banks of the Mississippi River owned by German immigrant and anti-slavery advocate Jacob Burkle was part of the “Underground Railroad” on the slaves’ route to freedom from 1855 to the abolition of slavery.
Nathan Bedford Forrest, whose statue still stands in the medical district of Memphis near downtown, was a slave owner and former KKK Leader – the first “Grand Dragon”. Forrest allowed forces under his command to conduct a massacre upon hundreds of black Union Army and white Southern Unionist prisoners at the Battle of Fort Pillow. The war crimes he was accused of were investigated by Union Major General William T. Sherman who did not charge Forrest with any improprieties.
In postwar writings, Confederate President Jefferson Davis and very famous General Robert E. Lee both expressed that the Confederate high command had failed to utilize Forrest’s “talents”. At the onset of the American Civil War, which started in 1861, Forrest was a millionaire: One of the richest men in the South! His fortune made literally off the backs of the indigenous and few African slaves he “owned”. Before the Civil War, Forrest also had plantations not far from Vicksburg, Mississippi as well, and had been a boat captain making runs between Memphis and Vicksburg. Many attempts have been made to remove his statue from Memphis, but to no avail….of course.
Exchange, Market, Auction, and Court Squares of Memphis- All places where slaves were sold and exchanged!
THE EXISTING SLAVE TRADE IN MEMPHIS; THE INFAMOUS 201 POPLAR COURTS AND JAIL SYSTEM!!!
There were many historically documented massacres and killings of indigenous people in Memphis. One example is what has been dubbed the “1866 Memphis Freedman Holocaust” where an investigation revealed that bitter feelings existed between the “low” whites & blacks; there also existed special hatred among the city police for the Colored Soldiers stationed there who had been discharged from the service of the U. S., which of course, the soldiers were not going to tolerate. Apparently, based on personal experiences of this writer and associates, some of the the Memphis City Police STILL carry this disdainment of indigenous people who exist here today, as do some Memphis City Government officials.
I hope the information herein has illuminated the reader’s mind. I hope I have not stepped on anyone’s blue suede shoes….on second thought, The Spirit of Martin Luther and B.B. are the only Kings in Memphis.
SOME EXTRA INFO FOR YOUR READING PLEASURE:
*United States Census Statistics of culturally diverse groups in the Memphis and Shelby County areas of Tennessee are listed as follows for 2012, and have increased in the last couple of years:
Black or African American alone, percent, 2012 (a) 52.8%
American Indian and Alaska Native alone, percent, 2012 (a) 0.3%
Asian alone, percent, 2012 (a) 2.5%
Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone, percent, 2012 (a) 0.1%
Two or More Races, percent, 2012 1.4%
Hispanic or Latino, percent, 2012 (b) 5.9%
*http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/47/47157.htmlCulture of Memphis, Tennessee
**Note: Considering the truth concerning the mis-naming and classification of “black” or “African-American” people in Memphis and Tennessee and lost or hidden history, and considering the recent presentation of proof and assertation of many “black” people showing they too are the “American Indian” or “Indigenous People”, there is a high percentage of “American Indian” or “indigenous people” in Memphis alone.
NOTE: NEXT TIME THE CENSUS COMES THROUGH, PUT AMERICAN INDIAN, NATIVE AMERICAN!!!
AND THEY TRIED TO HIDE IT!
MORE MEMPHIS INFO
A REMINDER: REMEMBER EARLIER I STATED THAT LAMAR AVENUE WAS PART OF THE “TRAIL OF TEARS”? WHAT A BEAUTIFUL SHOPPING CENTER ERECTED STRATEGICALLY ON OUR LAND… A SLAP IN ALL OF OUR ANCESTORS’ FACES!
TO THOSE SKEPTICS…. YOU DON’T THINK “NEGRO” OR “BLACK PEOPLE” ARE INDIGENOUS PEOPLE? CHECK OUT: http://yamasseegov.org/main_site/
South Carolina, North Carolina and Tennessee held the same practices concerning indigenous (Native Indian / American Slaves):
CHICKASAW, CHOCTAW AND CHAKCHIUMA WERE THE SAME; NOTE THE SKIN TONE:
ONE LAST THOUGHT: IT MAKES THIS WRITER PERSONALLY SICK TO KNOW THAT MEMPHIS HAS MADE MILLIONS AND MORE ON TOURISM UTILIZING THE HISTORY OF THE INDIGENOUS PEOPLE AND SLAVES OF MEMPHIS- The CITY OF MEMPHIS was literally built off the backs of the indigenous. LET MY PEOPLE GO! NEVER FORGET!